RNA secondary structure is a useful representation for studying the function of RNA, which captures most of the free energy of RNA folding. Using empirically determined energy parameters, secondary structures of nucleic acids can be efficiently computed by recursive algorithms. Several software packages supporting this task are readily available. As RNA secondary structures are outerplanar graphs, they can be drawn without intersection in the plane. Interpretation by the practitioner is eased when these drawings conform to a series of additional constraints beyond outerplanarity. These constraints are the reason why RNA drawing is difficult. Many RNA drawing algorithms therefore do not always produce intersection-free (outerplanar) drawings.
To remedy this shortcoming, we propose here the RNApuzzler algorithm, which is guaranteed to produce intersection-free drawings. It is based on a drawing algorithm respecting constraints based on nucleotide distances (RNAturtle). We investigate relaxations of these constraints allowing for intersection- free drawings. Based on these relaxations, we implemented a fully automated, simple, and robust algorithm that produces aesthetic drawings adhering to previously established guidelines. We tested our algorithm using the RFAM database and found that we can compute intersection-free drawings of all RNAs therein efficiently.
Sierra Platinum is a fast and robust peak-caller for replicated ChIP-seq experiments with visual quality-control and -steering. The required computing resources are optimized but still may exceed the resources available to researchers at biological research institutes. Sierra Platinum Service provides the full functionality of Sierra Platinum: using a web interface, a new instance of the service can be generated. Then experimental data is uploaded and the computation of the peaks is started. Upon completion, the results can be inspected interactively and then downloaded for further analysis, at which point the service terminates.
A major goal in epigenetics is understanding how cells differentiate into different cell types. Besides the increase of individual data sets, the amount of replicated experiments generating a tremendous amount of data is ever increasing. While biologists primarily analyze their data on the highest level using statistical correlations or on the lowest level analyzing nucleotide sequences, determining the fate of histone modifications during cell specification necessitates improved analysis capabilities on one or more intermediate levels. For this type of analysis, it proved to be very useful to use tiled binned scatter plot matrices showing binary relationships or to use tiled binned 3D scatter plots showing ternary relationships. Quarternary or general n-ary relationships are not easily analyzable using visualization techniques like scatter plots, only. Therefore, we augmented existing clustering methods with the tiling and binning idea enabling the analysis of n-ary relationships. Analyzing the changes of histone modifications comparing two cell lines using tiled binned clustering, we found new, unknown relations in the data.
Bioinformaticians judge the likelihood of the overall RNA secondary structure based on comparing its base pair probabilities. These probabilities can be calculated by various tools and are frequently displayed using dot plots for further analysis. However, most tools produce only static dot plot images which restricts possible interactions to the capabilities of the respective viewers (mostly PostScript-viewers). Moreover, this approach does not scale well with larger RNAs since most PostScript viewers are not designed to show a huge number of elements and have only legacy support for PostScript. Therefore, we developed iDotter, an interactive tool for analyzing RNA secondary structures. iDotter overcomes the previously described limitations providing multiple interaction mech- anisms facilitating the interactive analysis of the displayed data. According to the biologists and bioinformaticians that regularly use out interactive dot plot viewer, iDotter is superior to all previous approaches with respect to facilitating dot plot based analysis of RNA secondary structures.
iDotter is available under the GNU GPL v3 on https://git.gurkware.de/biovis/idotter.git
iDotter is hosted at https://idotter.sca-ds.de
Epigenetics data is very important for understand- ing the differentiation of cells into different cell types. More- over, the amount of epigenetic data available was and still is considerably increasing. To cope with this big amount of data, statistical or visual analysis is used. Usually, biologists analyze epigenetic data using statistical methods like correlations on a high level. However, this does not allow to analyze the fate of histone modifications in detail during cell specification or to compare histone modifications in different cell lines. Tiled binned scatter plot matrices proved to be very useful for this type of analysis showing binary relationships. We adapted the idea of tiling and binning scatter plots from 2D to 3D, such that ternary relationships can be depicted. Comparing tiled binned 3D scatter plots—the new method—to tiled binned 2D scatter plot matrices showed, that many relations that are difficult or impossible to find using tiled binned 2D scatter plot matrices can easily be observed using the new approach. We found that using our approach, changes in the distribution of the marks over time (different cell types) or differences between different replicates of the same cell sample are easy to detect. Tiled binned 3D scatter plots proved superior compared to the previously used method due to the reduced amount of overplotting leading to less interaction necessary for gaining similar insights.